Author Archives: ProteusMorrill

2020 Annual Review – the Annus Horribilis


2020 is over.

It’s been a rough year – for just about everybody. Hopefully we’ve all taken the time to stop what we’re doing, stay home, and rethink our lives.

It’s the end of the year, the beginning of a new one. Several people (including James Clear, author of Atomic Habits) take the time to do an annual review, reflect on the previous year, and set themselves up for success in the next one.

Since I’ve never done this, I’ll just steal Clear’s 3 questions:

  1. What went well this year?
  2. What didn’t go so well this year?
  3. What am I working toward?

Let’s get started.

1. What went well this year?

I didn’t catch COVID!

That’s good.

Once it became clear around March or April that this year was going to be defined by COVID, my main goal for the year became to not catch COVID. I believe in smart risk-taking – but my tolerance for the risk of catching a deadly infectious disease is not very high.

All of my other goals or priorities shifted for the year, since most of the things I planned to do in 2020 became difficult, unimportant, or impossible in light of the pandemic. Health, or even survival, takes precedence over everything else.

None of my immediate family members caught COVID (that I know of), or died from COVID. The amount of personal tragedy in my life was relatively small, something a lot of other people can’t say.

I read 51 books in 2020, depending on how you count it. That’s good. Many of those books were really good, and several of them ended up on my recommended book list. Looking back, I should have spent even more time reading, but 51 is a respectable amount, even if a pandemic gives you a lot of time to read.

I complete NaNoWriMo. For those who don’t know, NaNoWriMo is the National Novel Writing Month, where you spend the month of November writing 50,000 words of a novel. My “novel” is in an unfinished state, and I’m really not sure anything will come of it. More on that below.

If I take an overall view at the current state of my life, I ended the year in position relatively similar to where I started. Maybe a few things are a little better, and maybe a few others are a little worse. A small minority of people had a fantastic year, improving their life in every respect compared to me… and many others had one of the worst years of their life, or even lost their lives.

2. What didn’t go so well this year?

Materially and practically speaking, the year went about as well as it could have. Better than a lot of people. I didn’t catch COVID. I didn’t die. No one I know died from COVID.

However, I have to count this year as one of the worst of my life, and certainly in the bottom half of years of my life. I suspect most people are going to say the same. I spent most of the year worried, and in despair about the state of the world and its future. There’s a lot of things I should have done more of: meditate, read Stoic philosophy, refuse to worry over things I cannot control. But I didn’t do enough of those things, and my mindset suffered over most of the year. It just goes to show that when the outside world is out of your control, the only thing you truly have is your mind.

The pandemic meant that I had a lot of time to spend productively this year – but my productivity suffered greatly. Instead, I spent (roughly) 1000 hours this year playing video games, 200-400 of which was spent playing and modding one RPG. For hardcore gamers that’s not a lot, but I could have spent that 1000 hours in many other ways. Learning a musical instrument. Working out. Learning a marketable skill. Or reading. While it’s true that I read around 50 books this year, 1000 hours of video games could have been spent reading an additional 50, or 100 books.

It just goes to show that it isn’t just about how much time you have, it’s about using the time you have effectively.

Oh well. At least I didn’t die from COVID.

3. What am I working toward?

After the annus horribilis of 2020, there’s a few key areas I’m looking to improve on in 2021.


I’ll get something out of the way first: I mentioned that I did NaNoWriMo this year. It was interesting, and I’m glad I did it. But I think I need to put novel writing aside for now, or make it a low priority, because I have goals other than being a novelist.

Namely? Solving climate change. Earlier in 2020 I was researching climate change and then posting what I learned every week – but then I stopped when I realized that I didn’t need to become an expert about how climate change works, since there are already people who are experts in that. What I need to do is become an expert in solving climate change. To solve a problem, you don’t need to know everything about it – but you do need to know what leverage points exist that can be manipulated to either make the problem smaller, or solve the problem entirely. Once that leveraged solution is found, you scale it up 1000x.

But then how do you scale that solution up? I’ve come to believe that a corporation needs to be founded specifically to find a scientific solution to climate change, and make it profitable. This corporation would be designed from the ground up for the specific purpose of making money by solving climate change, and ignoring literally everything else that doesn’t contribute to that.

I either need to design that corporation, or join it in the unlikely event the right kind of corporation exists.

That’s the long term. The short term is finding a way of generating capital to create this corporation. That either requires angel investing, or generating capital through entrepreneurship. I have ideas for both paths.


I want to look like a Greek statue by the end of the year.

That’s not hyperbole. I don’t want to just look good, or be athletic by the end of the year. I want to have my body match the aesthetic dimensions of a Greek statue.

greek statue

Photo by Chait Goli on

It’s called the Grecian Ideal, and it’s what bodybuilders used to aim for before the age of steroids and mass monsters. Obviously looking like a Greek statue requires diet and exercise, but more specifically it requires going to one of the Grecial Ideal Calculators to find the measurements for your ideal (male) body. I have my measurements – combined with several fitness books, fitness equipment, and a specific exercise plan, I think I have a far greater chance of meeting my fitness goals this year than any previous year, despite setting them higher.


I spent most of 2020 in despair about the state of the world. While a lot of other people did too, that is neither healthy nor productive. I’ve decided that this year is the year I establish a regular meditation habit. I’ve dabbled in meditation before, but the trick is to keep doing it. It’s one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself, and is incredibly easy considering that it is largely the act of doing nothing – something we’ve all forgotten to do in the age of screens and constant distraction.


I also want to write more – blog posts, rather than fiction. I have this blog, but I don’t do nearly enough with it. What to write? One of the next things I’m going to write about on this blog is about my relationship with video games – and reevaluating that relationship.


In 2020, I read about 50 books.

In 2021, I want to read at least 80 books.

Why? Because I know I can read that many, and I have a very long reading list. At the same time, I’m going to pick a few books that I must read this year. These are books that I think have a good chance of ending up in my book recommendations. If I read a lot of other books, that’s good. But if I spend the next 11 months only reading these books, that will be also fine, as long as I get to these absolutely-critical-must-read books.

These days I divide the books I read into 12 categories (you’ll probably want different ones for yourself), so I’ll pick 1 book from each category.

My Must-Read Books for 2021:

Very famous books, very difficult books, books I’ve been meaning to read for a long time, and one book I’ve been meaning to re-read for a long time.

I think that covers just about everything for this Annual Review.

I completed NaNoWriMo 2020. Now what?

I completed NaNoWriMo 2020.

For those who don’t know, NaNoWriMo is the National Novel Writing Month. The goal is to spend the month of November writing 50,000 words of a novel – while the main goal is to write a 50,000 word first draft, other goals include writing 50,000 words for an existing project, or just writing 50,000 words you never look at again.

Why did I do this? Basically, November 1st arrived, and I saw people making posts about doing NaNoWriMo. I’ve dabbled in fiction writing before, and NaNoWriMo has been on my bucket list for a while, but it completely slipped my mind this year. I wasn’t planning on doing NaNo, but after seeing the posts about it, I said to myself:

“Fuck it, I’m doing NaNoWriMo.”

So I did. I had a couple false starts, starting two ideas that weren’t working out. Then, I started writing about one idea that took on a life of its own. Because of the false starts, I technically started late, and most days I was writing 2,000-3,000 words a day instead of the usual 1,667. That’s definitely a lot more than I usually write, and between the daily word count and the late start I wasn’t sure if I was going to make it.

But, on November 30th, I made it over 50,000 words. Around 50,700 according to the website I use to write, and around 50,200 when copy-pasted into a Word document. Closer to 55,000 if you count the words from the false starts. I’m counting that as a win.

So what’s the novel about? A lot of things. Fighting Nazis. A horrible global virus. People who think differently than other people. The ethics of emerging technologies. How much values can shift over decades or centuries. And several other topics.

It’s possible that some events in 2020 helped inspire this story.

Is the novel done? No, not even close. If I did want to finish this, it’s going to be several months at minimum. Right now it’s not even a finished first draft, let alone a complete story. I feel like there’s a lot of research I need to do to make the story as realistic as possible. And without giving too much away, a big part of the story is about contemporary people reacting to a radically different society – and that probably means a lot of contemporary readers reading the story and giving their reaction.

To be fair to myself, all of that is probably normal, since this is my first serious attempt at writing an original story.

What’s next? In between my other projects, I’m going to spend the month of December only working on the first chapter. Put all of my efforts into that chapter, make it as high quality as possible, and then send it to about a dozen people. Based on their reactions, I’ll decide if this is a viable novel or not.

After, that I’ll see what the future holds.

Solving Climate Change, Whatever It Takes

I recently had my 25th birthday. While that would normally be an important day, recent events have made it more important than usual.

Let me tell you a story.

It was the middle of August. I’m scrolling through reddit like I normally would, when I find this Reuters article. The gist: Greenland is melting fast, faster than yearly snow fall can rebuild the ice. It’s melting fast enough that even if we radically lowered carbon emissions, it’s going to completely melt over the coming decades. That means an average 6 meters of sea level rise.

That’s about 20 feet. That’s… not good, to put it mildly. The article doesn’t say it, but if Greenland is on track to melt, Antarctica probably is too. And that means far more than 6 meters of sea level rise.

This is a depressing article… for most people. But when I read, I felt something different:

A crushing sense of purpose.

You see, I’ve been concerned about climate change for years. At one point, I was actively researching a solution for climate change… and then stopped. A distraction here. A pandemic there. You know how it goes. For the past few months, when I haven’t been rethinking my life, I’ve been playing games, reading books, watching Netflix, and definitely not thinking about climate change.

And then I read about Greenland, and realized… I can’t do that. The best evidence I’ve seen says climate change is real. I’m open-minded, but I have every reason to believe it’s going to get worse.

The storms will grow larger. The droughts will go longer. The heat waves will get hotter. The forests will burn faster. The seas will rise, and the deserts will move to meet them. If the worst predictions come to pass, the Earth will be transformed, millions will die, millions more will become climate refugees, and billions more will suffer the consequences if climate change isn’t stopped.

I reject that future, and substitute my own.

I’ve made a decision: I have to find a solution if one exists. I can’t sit by and do nothing while the world burns and the seas rise. Climate change needs to be stopped, and I need to do whatever it takes to solve it. Not because it’s my destiny; I don’t believe in destiny. And it’s not about me being a perfect fit for the job either; to paraphrase a famous videogame quote, even the wrong man in the right place “…can make all the difference in the world.”

I intend to be the right man.

This is my promise to the people of the Earth, to all of my descendants, and especially to myself: I will do whatever it takes to stop climate change. I will work with anyone if it means stopping climate change. I will pay any price, bear any burden, and march through the fires of Hell if that is what it takes to stop climate change.

“He who has a why can bear almost any how.”

So what is this going to take? What does this mean? It means I can’t play around anymore. I can’t play video games; climate change is not a game, and there is no reward for failure. I can’t watch pointless videos or read pointless posts on reddit; every hour browsing the internet is an hour wasted. I can’t waste time on pointless drama – personal or political – when there are millions of lives at stake.

The habits of adolescence are not sufficient for the task at hand.

I need to read every available book on climate change, and any book that will make me better able to solve climate change. I might dislike the author or disagree with their political views, but those are unimportant when millions of lives are at stake. The absolute best books I read will get added to my book recommendations.

I need to learn everything I can about climate change, and every possible solution for solving it. Even if the solution is unpopular or has taboo tradeoffs, it needs to be considered; there’s too much at stake to not be open-minded. Whatever I learn, I need to find a way of turning into a practical solution for climate change.

I need to turn myself into a person capable of solving climate change. I need to work long hours (50 hour weeks, 70 hour weeks, 100 hour weeks, more if necessary), and make those hours count. I need to be able to work longer hours than I’ve ever worked, focus more than I’ve ever focused, read faster than I’ve ever read, and be more organized than I’ve ever been. I need to be smart, capable, and free in all the ways that others are not if I want to have any chance of solving this.

I need to not use social media very much if at all, except in ways that directly and indirectly lead to climate change being solved.

I need to be as healthy as possible, so I can devote as much energy as possible to this. Being healthy is not the same as being competent, but anyone who’s ever been sick will tell you that it’s hard to work long hours or solve hard problems if your body is getting in the way. I need to sleep well, eat well, exercise, and get all the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy living. And I need to experiment with different health habits; what works for you might not work for me, and vice versa.

I need to be a focused writer. Anything I write about going forward either needs to be directly related to climate change, or needs to be indirectly helpful for solving climate change.

I need to not worry as much about current events, whether it’s a pandemic, election, or anything else. Those things will either resolve themselves, or become so bad that I’m forced to worry about them. It’s not because those things are unimportant, it’s that I don’t have time to focus on them with millions of lives at stake.

And it is millions. You can’t predict the future with certainty, but you can look at probabilities… and the probabilities aren’t looking good unless a solution is found.

TLDR: My name is Proteus Morrill, and I’m going to solve climate change no matter what it takes.

Patriotism – Why I Love the United States in Spite of Its Flaws

I love the United States of America.

That’s become a less popular thing to say these days – you hear far more people criticizing or even hating America, laying out its flaws and failures – but I still love this country.

I love the Constitution and the Bill of Rights – flawed documents to be sure, but documents that have had a powerful impact on the structure of every new government that has come afterward. From sheer impact alone, these documents will be studied for centuries to come, alongside works like the Magna Carta or the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

I love the rights and freedoms those documents – the Constitution and Bill of Rights – lay out. Freedom of religion, of speech, of press, of assembly, of petition – all of which add up to freedom of thought. I love the right to bear arms (even if I don’t particularly love, or hate, guns), which I’ll call a right to self-defense. I love that several amendments set out to give the citizens of this country a fair trial, whether their accuser is another citizen or the government itself.

I love the separation of powers, and that the United States was created to explicitly not feature dictatorship, monarchy, nobility, or aristocracy. Leaders are elected, not born. There are limits on their power – frustrating when those limits are on leaders you support, and a godsend for the leaders you despise. Wealth has obvious advantages, but doesn’t come with hereditary land or titles. There are no kings, dukes, or duchesses of the United States – and that’s a feature, not a bug.

I love the Statue of Liberty – but more importantly, I love the line from “The New Colossus” inscribed on the Statue of Liberty:

Give me your tired, your poor

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.

I love that millions of people around the world, desperate to escape the tyranny, oppression, and slavery found in their homelands, have looked to the United States as a sanctuary from those evils. The shining city on a hill, to use the cliche. I love that for all of its flaws and failures, so many people yearn to come to America – and that so many movements for human rights and freedoms around the world have been inspired by the American story.

Many people criticize that the rights and freedoms America prides itself on were not extended to millions of people at the birth of this country – I love that the American story includes the fight to extend those freedoms to everyone. I love that the women and freemen of America have rights and liberties their ancestors could not have hoped to enjoy, even in a limited or flawed form.

That fight is not over. It is far from over. I doubt that fight will be over soon – but its a fight worth continuing.

I’m not saying anything new. But on this Independence Day, I’m looking for reasons to love this country. The current moment is laser-focused on the many flaws and failures of America – in government, in policing, in matters of race. The drive to improve on this country’s flaws is valid and important – but while many are declaring that the United States of America is an irredeemable nation founded on sin and blood, I refuse to do so. The United States has flaws. It has made mistakes. Its history is full of failures of morality – some stretching back to its founding. But I am a patriot. I love my country, not because it is perfect, but because much of it is great, and worth defending and improving.

I am not a nationalist – hugging flags, nostalgic to the core, convinced that my country is perfect or inherently superior, and that anything that doesn’t fit into that perfect image deserves scorn or violence (whether along lines of race, religion or culture). I am also not the opposite. I’m not sure what the word would be, but perhaps “anti-nationalist” – not someone who is against nations, but someone who believes their nation is inherently inferior or evil, its sins are irredeemable, no progress is noteworthy or praiseworthy, and that anything short of starting over from the beginning is insufficient to correct the moral calculus.

On this Independence Day, I am reflecting on America – both on what has made it great, and the work needed to make it even better. Its values – and its ongoing attempt to live up to them. The millions of people who have contributed to this country’s story – and the millions more who never had the opportunity to do so. Its accomplishments – and its failures.

I am a patriot – I don’t want to destroy my country, I want to fix its errors and make it better. And I hope you’re a patriot too, whatever country you call home.

“I want to go home and rethink my life.”

There’s a small scene in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones where Obi-Wan and Anakin are in a club, looking for the bounty hunter Zam Wesell. A drug dealer starts a conversation with Kenobi.

Death Sticks

Dealer: You wanna buy some death sticks?

Kenobi: [Mind Trick] You don’t want to sell me death sticks.

Dealer: I don’t wanna sell you death sticks…

Kenobi: [Mind Trick] You want to go home and rethink your life.

Dealer: I want to go home and rethink my life…

[It turns out that the death stick dealer is named Elan Sleazebaggano. Yes, really.]

It’s a small scene played for laughs. Usually Jedi aren’t supposed to use their force powers on random citizens (even drug dealers), and the Jedi Council probably wouldn’t approve. However, I think it’s worth examining this interaction a little bit, even if it’s just an anti-drug gag in between lightsaber action.

This man’s life has taken a turn for the worse. Whatever potential he had when he was younger, whatever dreams he might have had, it probably wasn’t being a death stick dealer in a seedy club. Who knows what terrible impact he’s had on the people around him – and who knows if he could have been one of the main characters in this story, if a few things had gone differently.

And then he runs into Obi-Wan Kenobi, who uses Jedi mind control on him without a second thought. With a small wave of Kenobi’s hand, the least likely Black Swan, this man has been forced to stop what he’s doing, go home, and rethink his life. Mind control aside, I’ll call that a positive.

Sometimes the world forces you to rethink your life. Sometimes the world gives you the opportunity to do so, and you can choose to take it.

Pandemic and Opportunity

Right now, COVID-19 is sweeping across the world. With billions under shelter-in-place orders, and only the most essential businesses open, life has basically stopped in several countries. People in countries that haven’t stopped completely have had their daily routine dramatically changed.

This is a crisis – and a rare opportunity.

Specifically, this is your opportunity to stop everything you’re doing, stay home, and rethink your life.

  • Who are you, at your core?
  • Are you happy with your career?
  • What kind of impact do you want to have on the world?
  • Are you happy with your relationships?
  • Is there anything you regret not doing, or putting off?
  • What do you want to accomplish in your life?
  • What changes do you know you need to make?

You have the opportunity to ask those questions, come up with some answers, and start walking in a different direction. Everyone is too busy with the pandemic to stop you.

This kind of change is hard, so let me try something to help you get started:

[Hand Wave] You want to stay home, and rethink your life.

The 10 Most Powerful Languages To Learn

You want to learn a language, and you want to learn a powerful language, one you’ll use for the rest of your life. Which language or languages should you learn to do that?

Maybe you want to learn a language with population power, allowing you to talk to millions, or even over a billion people. Maybe you want a language with global power, spoken in dozens of countries and allowing you to travel the world with ease. Maybe you want a language with cultural power, allowing you to fully experience the richest cultures of the planet in their original language. Maybe you want a language with financial power, one that will make working in the richest nations on Earth, or on the most critical trading routes, easy and profitable. Or maybe you just want a language with staying power, one unlikely to undergo the tragedy of language death in the next 10 years, let alone the next 100.

This is my attempt to answer – for myself at least – which languages are the most useful and powerful to learn, especially in the immediate future. There are many factors to think about when choosing a language to learn (some of which are notoriously hard to pin down, such as total number of speakers), and your list might look radically different than mine. With that said, here are my choices:

1. English

If you’re reading this post in English, congratulations: you have mastered the lingua franca of the early 21st century. For better or worse, English is the closest thing the world has to a global language. It’s spoken by over 1 billion people if you just count first and second language speakers, but the number is even higher if you count people with any amount of English proficiency (you don’t have to be perfect, just get the point across). It’s one of the six official U.N. languages, and is the premier or official language of science, trade, publishing, air travel, and the internet.

It’s used in some capacity by nearly 100 countries, (including developing future superpowers like India and Nigeria) but is also the unofficial official language of the most powerful economic, military, and cultural superpower the planet Earth has ever seen: The United States of America (home to five or six times as many native speakers of English as there are English people). Perhaps another language will come to be the lingua franca of the world, but for now English got here first, due in no small part to the British empire and the global influence of the U.S.A.

If you were born in a nation where English became your native language, know this: you were born in the center of the empire, at the height of it’s power, and you have an enormous advantage over billions of others when it comes to global affairs. But that advantage probably won’t last forever. If you want to maintain that advantage, you’ll want to learn another language, or two, or ten.

2. Mandarin Chinese

If you’re looking for a potential challenger to English, at least in sheer numbers alone, then you need to take a serious look at Mandarin Chinese. Mandarin, just like English, has over a billion speakers, and nearly 1.3 billion if you count different variants and dialects of Chinese.

Considering that China is already the second largest economy on the planet, and is forecasted to overtake the United States sometime in the next several decades, it’s an incredibly valuable language to learn if you have any aspiration of working in, around, or with Chinese people and companies. However, the reason it is a very valuable language to learn is also the same reason blocking it from being the global language on the same level as English: 90-95% of Chinese speakers live in China. This is changing with China’s Belt and Road Initiative, where China is building infrastructure and trading relationships all over Eurasia, with Chinese people and companies creating a global presence where none existed before. Not that it didn’t already: Chinese is another of the six U.N. languages. However, with BRI, pockets of Chinese speakers will be found along the key trade routes of the world, both ancient and modern.

3. Spanish

While it doesn’t boast over a billion speakers, like English or Mandarin, Spanish does boast an impressive 500 million speakers worldwide, and a spot as the third of the six U.N. languages. Spoken in Europe, parts of Asia, parts of Africa, most of the Caribbean, and the entirety of Latin America save for Brazil (reflecting the Treaty of Tordesillas), learning Spanish will open an impressive amount of the world up to you. If you have any goals that involve visiting or working in Latin America (or even the United States of America, where around 50 million people speak Spanish, second only to Mexico’s 120+ million), Spanish is an incredibly useful language to learn.

4. French

While French is no longer the lingua franca of diplomacy that it was a century ago, French is still an important global language. It is the fourth of the six U.N. languages, is a working language of several international organizations (such as the Olympics Committee and FIFA), and is spoken by around 280 million people around the world including in Europe, Canada, and huge parts of North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. French’s presence in Africa is key, with some projections placing French as the future most spoken language – though there are key reasons to doubt this, given that not every country in the Francophone nations has universal French fluency. Regardless, French is expected to grow in number of speakers, and in global importance.

5. Modern Standard Arabic

The Arab World stretches from North Africa to the Arabian Peninsula, and the lingua franca of this gigantic region is Arabic. However, saying “Arabic” is misleading, because while estimates put the total number of speakers above 300 million, those 300 million people speak several different regional and national dialects of Arabic, many of which aren’t mutually intelligible. What is mutually intelligible is Modern Standard Arabic, or simply Standard Arabic. Based on Classical Arabic, MSA is used throughout the Arab speaking world, and is the fifth of the six U.N. languages. While English might be the current global language, and French might be widespread throughout North Africa, anyone who wants to work in or around the 22 nations of the Arab League (many of which are global hot spots of conflict, commerce, or both) would be wise to learn Standard Arabic.

6. German

German probably shouldn’t be considered a global language, considering that of it’s 100-120 million speakers, most of those those speakers live in Germany and neighboring countries. However, what makes German a crucial language to learn is Germany’s impact on world trade and global affairs. As of 2018, Germany is the fourth largest economy by GDP, is a member of several international organizations (NATO, G7, G20…), and is one of the central members (if not THE central member) of the European Union, with Brussels serving as the de facto capital of the emerging global superpower. Although, even if Germany wasn’t a key member (and German a key language) of the European Union, anyone who wants to spend much time in central Europe should look into learning German.

7. Russian

While neither the Russian Empire nor the U.S.S.R. still exist, Russian remains an important global language. Boasting 260 million speakers worldwide and a spot as the sixth of the six U.N. languages, Russian is the lingua franca of Eastern Europe, much of Central Asia, and naturally: Russia, largest country on Earth by size, ninth largest by population (over 140 million), and eleventh by GDP (not a minor country by any stretch of the imagination). The issue facing Russia – and affecting the potential number of Russian speakers – is demographics, where fertility declined dramatically after the fall of the Soviet Union, and currently sits at about 1.6 births per woman – well below the replacement rate of 2.1 births. This has led some pundits to discuss the possibility that this low fertility, combined with western sanctions after the annexation of Crimea, will lead to a demographic death spiral in Russia. Personally, I’d say calling it a “death spiral” is melodramatic. In spite of this, Russian will continue to be an important language to study, no matter where you are in Eastern Europe.

8. Hindi

While India might have the second largest number of English speakers on Earth (with around 125 million), Hindi is the primary language of India. I say primary, because India has 22 official (scheduled) languages, with support for English as the 23rd, and over 1000 other languages spoken within the country. With over 500 million speakers (over 600 million if you include Urdu speakers) worldwide, and with India soon be largest nation on Earth (overtaking China as the most populous sometime before 2030), Hindi can’t and shouldn’t be ignored as a language.

9. Japanese

Japanese, like German, is not a global language – 125-130 million people speak it, with a moderate diaspora outside Japan. What makes Japanese an important language to learn is that Japan, like Germany, punches way above its weight in global affairs – particularly in commerce, where Japan ranks third in GDP, in part due to creating some of the most successful corporations and media franchises on Earth. However, like Russia, Japan faces it’s own demographic problems, with a fertility rate well below replacement leading to a shrinking workforce and shrinking Japan. While this is likely going to lead issues in the future, so long as Japan remains one of the top economies in the world, Japanese will continue to be an important language to learn.

10. Portuguese

Portuguese is spoken by around 260 million people worldwide. It joins English and Spanish as a language where the majority of speakers live outside the country it originated – in this case, Brazil, where over 200 million of the 260 million speakers live. Like India, Brazil is a rapidly growing superpower, with membership in major international organizations such as BRICS and Mercosur – but also with it’s own host of problems endemic to Latin American countries, including corruption, mass poverty, and history of military coups. While some would argue that Portuguese and Spanish are similar enough that you could get away with learning the more-spoken Spanish, so long as Brazil emerges as a regional and global superpower, Portuguese will be a valuable language to learn.

Other Languages Worth Learning:

With those key 10 languages spoken for, we should acknowledge that global events, and the global impacts of different languages, can change rapidly. Maybe Russia’s or Japan’s demographic troubles will spiral out of control, making their languages irrelevant. Maybe several North African nations will reject French in favor of complete reliance on Arabic. Maybe the European project will fail, and with it Germany’s importance on the world stage. I think each of these events is incredibly unlikely, but the future is uncertain. In case the future is dramatically different than anyone can predict, here are some other languages for you to consider:

  1. Korean: South Korea is similar to Japan (don’t tell any Japanese or Korean people I said that), in that South Korea has an outsized impact on world trade and global affairs compared to its size.
  2. Italian: Italy is the 9th largest economy in the world, ahead of Russia or Canada, making Italian a language well worth learning.
  3. Non-Mandarin Chinese: If you want to spend a lot of time in or near China, then learning a variant of Chinese other than Mandarin could be worthwhile.
  4. Languages of India: Particularly Bengali, Punjabi, Telugu, Marathi, or Tamil.
  5. Languages of Indonesia: Particularly Indonesian, the lingua franca of the more than 700 languages spoken there. Indonesia is the fourth largest country by population, and is very likely going to have a huge impact on global trade in the coming decades.
  6. Persian: Spoken by nearly 100 million people, if you learn this you will probably get some very interesting job offers from the U.S. military, even more than if you learned Arabic. Something to think about.
  7. Swahili: One of the lingua francas of Eastern Africa, and spoken by between 50 and 100 million people – though most Americans have probably only heard it mentioned by Weird Al Yankovic.
  8. Turkish: As I’m writing this, Turkey is having some… issues. That said, Turkey’s location on the Mediterranean and the Black Sea makes it highly influential on global trade.
  9. Languages of Southeast Asia: With the growing influence of Vietnam and Thailand on trade, either through trading done within their countries or by their proximity to extremely important Asian trade routes, Vietnamese and Thai will open you up to several unique opportunities.
  10. Conlangs: Conlangs are constructed languages, and include languages such as Klingon, and more famously, Esperanto. Under this category I’m also including sign languages, even though I’m not sure actual linguists would agree with that. These can be extremely useful, at least if you want to get paid for knowing a language few others do. More so for sign language than Klingon though.

What language should you learn? That’s going to depend on your goals in life, and I can’t answer that for you. If you want to bring North and South America closer together, learn English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese. If you want to work in Japan, learn Japanese. If you happen to be half-German and half-Korean, look into German and Korean. If you want to be the most amazing polyglot that ever lived, learn every one of these languages and more. With all of that said, I’ve answered my own original question to my satisfaction.